Vayikra (Leviticus): Emor > Ch 23

Days when work is prohibited by G-d

  • Every Shabbat
  • First day of Pesakh
  • Last day of Pesakh
  • Shavuot
  • Rosh Hashana
  • Yom Kippur
  • First day of Sukkot
  • Last day of Sukkot (Shemini Atzeret)


Holidays appointed by G-d: SHABBAT

  • Six days, work may be performed, but on the seventh day, it is a complete rest day, a holy occasion; you shall not perform any work. It is a Sabbath to the Lord in all your dwelling places.


Holidays appointed by G-d: PESAKH - on the 14th of Nissan

  • Passover Offering – 14th of Nissan:
    • In the first month, on the 14th of the month, in the afternoon, [you shall sacrifice] the Passover offering to the Lord.
  • Passover Festival – seven days starting on the 15th of Nissan
    • On the 15th day of that month is the Festival of Unleavened Cakes to the Lord; you shall eat unleavened cakes for a seven day period.
    • On the first day, there shall be a holy occasion for you; you shall not perform any work of labor.
    • You shall bring a fire offering to the Lord for a seven day period.
    • On the seventh day, there shall be a holy occasion; you shall not perform any work of labor.
  • Bringing of the Omer offering from the first barley harvest on the 2nd day of Passover
    • When you come to the Land which I am giving you, and you reap its harvest, you shall bring to the kohen an omer of the beginning of your reaping. And he shall wave the omer before the Lord so that it will be acceptable for you; the kohen shall wave it on the day after the rest day. And on the day of your waving the omer, you shall offer up an unblemished lamb in its [first] year as a burnt offering to the Lord; Its meal offering [shall be] two tenths [of an ephah] of fine flour mixed with oil, a fire offering to the Lord as a spirit of satisfaction. And its libation [shall be] a quarter of a hin of wine.
    • You shall not eat bread or [flour made from] parched grain or fresh grain, until this very day, until you bring your G-d's sacrifice. [This is] an eternal statute throughout your generations in all your dwelling places.
  • Counting of the Omer:
    • And you shall count for yourselves, from the morrow of the rest day from the day you bring the omer as a wave offering seven weeks; they shall be complete.


Holidays appointed by G-d: SHAVUOT - on the 50th day of Counting of the Omer

  • You shall count until the day after the seventh week, [namely,] the fiftieth day, [on which] you shall bring a new meal offering to the Lord. From your dwelling places, you shall bring bread, set aside, two [loaves] [made from] two tenths [of an ephah]; they shall be of fine flour, [and] they shall be baked leavened, the first offering to the Lord. And associated with the bread, you shall bring seven unblemished lambs in their [first] year, one young bull, and two rams these shall be a burn offering to the Lord, [along with] their meal offering and libations a fire offering [with] a spirit of satisfaction to the Lord. And you shall offer up one he goat as a sin offering, and two lambs in their [first] year as a peace offering. And the kohen shall wave them in conjunction with the first offering bread as a waving before the Lord, along with the two lambs. They shall be holy to the Lord, [and] belong to the kohen.
  • And you shall designate on this very day a holy occasion it shall be for you; you shall not perform any work of labor. [This is] an eternal statute in all your dwelling places throughout your generations.
  • When you reap the harvest of your Land, you shall not completely remove the corner of your field during your harvesting, and you shall not gather up the gleanings of your harvest. [Rather,] you shall leave these for the poor person and for the stranger. I am the Lord, your G-d.


Holidays appointed by G-d: ROSH HASHANA - on the 1st of Tishrei

  • In the seventh month, on the first of the month, it shall be a Sabbath for you, a remembrance of [Israel through] the shofar blast a holy occasion.
  • You shall not perform any work of labor, and you shall offer up a fire offering to the Lord.


Holidays appointed by G-d: YOM KIPPUR - on the 10th of Tishrei

  • But on the 10th of this seventh month, it is a day of atonement, it shall be a holy occasion for you; you shall afflict yourselves, and you shall offer up a fire offering to the Lord.
  • You shall not perform any work on that very day, for it is a day of atonement, for you to gain atonement before the Lord, your G-d.
  • For any person who will not be afflicted on that very day, shall be cut off from its people.
  • And any person who performs any work on that very day I will destroy that person from amidst its people.
  • You shall not perform any work. [This is] an eternal statute throughout your generations in all your dwelling places.
  • It is a complete day of rest for you, and you shall afflict yourselves. On the ninth of the month in the evening, from evening to evening, you shall observe your rest day.


  • These are G-d's appointed [holy days] that you shall designate them as holy occasions, [on which] to offer up a fire offering to the Lord burnt offering and meal offering, sacrifice and libations, the requirement of each day on its day; apart from the Lord's Sabbaths, and apart from your gifts, and apart from all your vows, and apart from all your donations that you give to the Lord.


Holidays appointed by G-d: SUKKOT – seven days starting on the 15th of Tishrei

  • On the 15th day of this seventh month, is the Festival of Succoth, a seven day period to the Lord.
  • On the first day, it is a holy occasion; you shall not perform any work of labor.
  • [For] a seven day period, you shall bring a fire offering to the Lord.
  • On the 15th day of the seventh month, when you gather in the produce of the land, you shall celebrate the festival of the Lord for a seven day period; the first day shall be a rest day, and the eighth day shall be a rest day. And you shall take for yourselves on the first day, the fruit of the hadar tree, date palm fronds, a branch of a braided tree, and willows of the brook, and you shall rejoice before the Lord your G-d for a seven day period.
  • And you shall celebrate it as a festival to the Lord for seven days in the year. [It is] an eternal statute throughout your generations [that] you celebrate it in the seventh month.
  • For a seven day period you shall live in booths. Every resident among the Israelites shall live in booths, in order that your [ensuing] generations should know that I had the children of Israel live in booths when I took them out of the land of Egypt. I am the Lord, your G-d.


Holidays appointed by G-d: SHEMINI ATZERET – 8th day of Sukkot

  • On the eighth day, it shall be a holy occasion for you, and you shall bring a fire offering to the Lord. It is a [day of] detention. You shall not perform any work of labor.


 
Rashi Commentary

  • from the morrow of the rest day On the day after the [first] holy day [of Passover]. — [See Rashi on verse 11; Men. 65b]
  • the fruit of the hadar tree according to Ramban, the fruit known in Aramaic as “ethrog,” is known in Hebrew as “ hadar.”
  • hadar [Refers to a fruit] “that resides (הַדָּר) ” on its tree from one year to the next, which is the ethrog. — [Sukkah 35a]
  • date-palm fronds Heb. כַּפֹּת תְּמָרִים. [The word כַּפֹּת is written here with] a missing “vav” (ו) [thus implying the singular rather than the plural]. This teaches us that only one [date-palm frond is to be taken]. — [Sukkah 32a]
  • a branch of a braided tree [A tree] whose branches עֲנָפָיו are braided like cords עֲבוֹתוֹת and like ropes. And Scripture is referring here specifically to the הֲדַס (myrtle) tree, which is made in a braided-like form. — [Sukkah 32b]
  • It is a [day of] detention [i.e., G-d says to Israel,] “I have detained you [to remain] with Me.” This is analogous to a king who invited his sons to feast with him for a certain number of days, and when the time came for them to leave, he said: “My sons! Please, stay with me just one more day, [for] it is difficult for me to part with you!” [Similarly, after the seven days of Succoth, G-d “detains” Israel for one extra holy day.]


Research & Analysis
  • Every 7th day is a day of rest (Shabbat). There are 7 additional days of rest throughout the year [Pesakh (2), Shavuot, Rosh Hashana, Yom Kippur, Sukkot(2)]. If these days were evenly distributed, then there would be 1 day of rest out of every 50 days. The Jubilee year is on 1 out every 50 years.
 

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