Shemot (Exodus): Mishpatim > Ch 22

G-d gives Moses laws for dealing with thieves

  • If a man steals a bull or a lamb and slaughters it or sells it, he shall pay five cattle for the bull or four sheep for the lamb.
  • If, while breaking in, the thief is discovered, and he is struck and dies, [it is as if] he has no blood. If the sun shone upon him, [it is as if] he has blood; he shall surely pay. If he has no [money], he shall be sold for his theft.
  • If the stolen article is found in his possession whether a bull, a donkey, or a lamb live ones he shall pay twofold.


G-d gives Moses laws for dealing with accidental property damage

  • If a man leads his animals into a field or a vineyard, or lets his animal loose and it eats in another's field, the best of his field or the best of his vineyard he shall pay.
  • If a fire goes forth and finds thorns, and a stack of grain or standing grain or the field be consumed, the one who ignited the fire shall surely pay.


G-d gives Moses laws for dealing with loans

  • If a man gives his neighbor money or articles for safekeeping, and it is stolen from the man's house, if the thief is found, he shall pay twofold. If the thief is not found, the homeowner shall approach the judges, [to swear] that he has not laid his hand upon his neighbor's property. For any sinful word, for a bull, for a donkey, for a lamb, for a garment, for any lost article, concerning which he will say that this is it, the plea[s] of both parties shall come to the judges, [and] whoever the judges declare guilty shall pay twofold to his neighbor.
  • If a man gives his neighbor a donkey, a bull, a lamb, or any animal for safekeeping, and it dies, breaks a limb, or is captured, and no one sees [it], the oath of the Lord shall be between the two of them provided that he did not lay his hand upon his neighbor's property, and its owner shall accept [it], and he shall not pay. But if it is stolen from him, he shall pay its owner. If it is torn apart, he shall bring witness for it; [for] the torn one he shall not pay. And if a person borrows [an animal] from his neighbor and it breaks a limb or dies, if its owner is not with him, he shall surely pay. If its owner is with him, he shall not pay; if it is a hired [animal], it has come for its hire.


G-d gives Moses laws for dealing with seductors, sorcerers, those who lie with animals, idol worshipers

  • If a man seduces a virgin who is not betrothed and lies with her, he shall provide her with a marriage contract as a wife. If her father refuses to give her to him [in marriage], he shall weigh out money according to the dowry of the virgins.
  • You shall not allow a sorceress to live.
  • Whoever lies [carnally] with an animal shall surely be put to death.
  • He who slaughters [a sacrifice] to the gods shall be destroyed, except to the Lord alone.


G-d gives Moses laws for dealing with strangers, widows & orphans

  • And you shall not mistreat a stranger, nor shall you oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.
  • You shall not oppress any widow or orphan. If you oppress him, [beware,] for if he cries out to Me, I will surely hear his cry. My wrath will be kindled, and I will slay you with the sword, and your wives will be widows and your children orphans.


G-d gives Moses laws for lending to the poor

  • When you lend money to My people, to the poor person [who is] with you, you shall not behave toward him as a lender; you shall not impose interest upon him.
  • If you take your neighbor's garment as security, until sunset you shall return it to him, for it is his only covering; it is his garment for his skin. With what shall he lie? And it shall be [that] if he cries out to Me, I will hear because I am gracious.


G-d gives Moses laws for treating judges & princes and for bringing offerings to the kohanim

  • You shall not curse a judge, neither shall you curse a prince among your people.
  • Your fullness offering and your heave offering you shall not delay; the firstborn of your sons you shall give Me. So shall you do with your cattle and with your sheep: seven days it shall be with its mother, on the eighth day you may give it to Me.


G-d tells Moses that eating flesh torn in the field would make the people unholy to Him

  • And you shall be holy people to Me, and flesh torn in the field you shall not eat; you shall throw it to the dog[s].


 
Rashi Commentary

  • You shall not allow a sorceress to live But she shall be executed by the court. [This law applies equally to] both males and females, but the text speaks of the usual, and those who practice sorcery are usually women. -[From Mechilta, Sanh. 67a]
  • Your fullness offering This reference is to the first fruits (בִּכּוּרִים). -[From Onkelos, Mechilta, Temurah 4a]
  • and your heave offering Heb. וְדִמְעֲ. [This is] the terumah [the first offering from the produce, which is given to the kohen] (Mechilta, Temurah 4a)
  • the firstborn of your sons you shall give Me to redeem him from the kohen with five selas.
  • seven days it shall be with its mother This is a warning to the kohen, that if he wants to bring his sacrifice early, he may not bring it before eight [days] because it lacks the minimum time requirement.
  • on the eighth day you may give it to Me We may think that is obligatory for that day, [and if so, we would render: On the eighth day you shall give it to Me. That is not so, however, because] it says here, “eighth,” and it says further (Lev. 22:27), “and from the eighth day on it will be accepted.” Just as “the eighth day” mentioned further means to make [it] fit from the eighth day on, so does the eighth day mentioned here mean to make [it] fit from the eighth day on, and this is its meaning: on the eighth day you are permitted to give it to Me. -[From Mechilta]


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