Bereisheet (Genesis): Noah > Ch 10

The seventy descendants of the three sons of Noah

Were forced to separate, each one to his language
according to their families, in their nations:

  • 14 sons and grandsons of Japheth
  • 30 sons and grandsons of Ham
  • 26 sons and grandsons of Shem


  • Nimrod was a mighty hunter before the Lord. The beginning of his kingdom was Babylon and Erech and Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar (Iraq). From that land emerged Asshur, and he built Nineveh and Rehoboth and Calah. And Resen, between Nineveh and between Calah; that is the great city.
  • The Philistines emerged from the Pathrusim and the Casluhim
  • The border of the Canaanites was from Sidon as you come to Gerar, until Gaza, as you come to Sodom and Gomorrah, and Admah and Zeboiim, until Lesha.


  • Shem was the father of all the people of the other side of the river, the brother of Japheth the elder.
  • The settlement of the sons of Joktan was from Mesha, as you come to Sephar, the mountain of the east.

Rashi Commentary

  • Tiras This is Persia. — [from Gen. Rabbah (ad loc., Yoma]
  • Nimrod was a mighty hunter before the Lord caused the entire world to rebel against the Holy One, blessed be He, with the plan of the Generation of the Dispersion. — [from Eruv. 53a, Chul. 89a] Hebrew: rebel [לִמְרֹד] Nimrod [נִמְרֹד]
  • Lehabim Heb. לְהָבִים [people] whose faces were like flames (לַהַב).
  • And the Pathrusim and the Casluhim, from whom the Philistines emerged They [the Philistines] descended from them both, for the Pathrusim and the Casluhim exchanged the intimacy of their wives with each other, and the Philistines descended from them. — [from Gen. Rabbah 37:5]
  • and afterwards…were scattered From these were scattered many families.
  • was divided The tongues became confused, and they were scattered from the valley and were dispersed throughout the entire world. And we learned in Seder Olam (ch. 1) that at the end of his [Peleg’s] days, they were dispersed.
  • Joktan Because he was humble and considered himself small (קָטָן). Therefore, he merited to raise all these families. — [from Gen. Rabbah 37:7]
  • Hazarmaveth lit. yard of death, graveyard. He was so called because of his place. [These are] the words of the Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 37:7).

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